The cornea is the eye’s outermost layer. It is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye. Although the cornea is clear and seems to lack substance, it is actually a highly organized group of cells and proteins. Unlike most tissues in the body, the cornea contains no blood vessels to nourish or protect it against infection. Instead, the cornea receives its nourishment from the tears and aqueous humor (a fluid in the anterior portion of the eye) that fills the chamber behind it. The cornea must remain transparent to refract light properly, and the presence of even the tiniest blood vessels can interfere with this process. To see well, all layers of the cornea must be free of any cloudy or opaque areas.
With its ability for quick repair, the cornea usually heals after most minor injuries or infections. The cornea transparency can be damaged by congenital reasons as well as by infections and various operations. There are several types of corneal degenerations, diseases that can cause progressive structural problems with the cornea including Keratoconus, which is a progressive disease in which the cornea thins and changes shape, Herpes zoster, Fuchs’ Dystrophy, eye dryness, etc.